Giovanni A. Cavagna

Born:    May 30, 1934, Milan, Italy 

Present position:    Emeritus Professor of Human Physiology, University of Milan

Business address:

Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Medico-Chirurgica e dei Trapianti

Sezione di Fisiologia Umana

via Luigi Mangiagalli 32

20133 Milano (Italy)

Business telephone, fax and e-mail:

Telephone: +390250315423

Fax:  +390250315455

E-mail: giovanni.cavagna@unimi.it

Education:

1959    M.D. - University of Milan

1965    Libera Docenza in Human Physiology

1969    Libera Docenza in Biophysics

Positions held:

1961-1971    Assistant Professor - Dept. of Physiology, University of Milan

1971-1973    Associate Professor - Dept. of Physiology, University of Milan

1973-2008    Full Professor of Human Physiology - University of Milan

Teaching Experience:

1966-1973    Course of Biophysics - Medical School, University of Milan

1967-1986    Course of Biomechanics - Institute of Physical Education of the Lombardia, (I.S.E.F.) Milano

1973-2005    Course of Human Physiology - Medical School, University of Milan

Awards:

Honorary Medical Degree by the Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgium (1994).

‘Antonio Feltrinelli’ Prize for Medicine, Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, Italy (2000).

Professional Societies and appointments:

International Academy of Astronautics

Association des Physiologistes de Langue Française

Società Italiana di Fisiologia

Istituto Lombardo Accademia di Scienze e Lettere (corresponding member)

Muscle Physiology Commission, International Union of Physiological Sciences (1980-1989)

Professional Experience:

1965-1966 NATO Fellowship for research - Dept. of Physiology, University of Pennsylvania (USA) collaborates with             Prof. Arthur B. DuBois

1972&73 Visiting Associate Professor - Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole (USA) collaborates with Prof.             Arthur B. DuBois

1973&76 Visiting Professor - Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University (USA) collaborates with Prof. C.             Richard Taylor

1976    Member of a commission for the title of Philosophy Doctor (Ph.D.) for two candidates at Harvard University         (USA) and Melbourne University (Australia) 

1977    Participates to a scientific expedition in Kenya organized by Harvard University

1978    Visiting Professor - Dept. of Pure and Applied Zoology, The University of Leeds (UK) collaborates with Prof. R         McN Alexander

1986    Visiting Professor - Division of Applied Sciences, Harvard University (USA) collaborates with Prof. Thomas A         McMahon

1988,91,93,94    Visiting Professor - Université catholique de Louvain (Belgium) collaborates with Proff. N C Heglund                     and P A Willems

1997    Invited to organize and co-chair the Symposium "Maximal performance in locomotion" at the XXXIII         International Congress of Physiological Sciences (St. Petersburg, Russia)

1996,97,2002 Participates to the 23rd, 24th and 32nd ESA Parabolic Flight Campaign. Bordeaux (France)

Invited Lectures:

1966    New York Academy of Science, Symposium on 'Sound Production in Man' 

1967    British Interplanetary Society, International Summer School  on 'Biology in Space'

1969    Association des Physiologistes de Langue Française, 37ème Congres: Opening Lecture

1972    Royal College of Surgeons of England, Congress on 'Ventilatory and Phonatory Control System'

1972    Acquasparta, International Congress on Comparative Physiology, 

1974    Melbourne, XXth World Congress in Sport Medicine

1974    California Institute of Technology, Symposium on ' Swimming and Flying in Nature'

1975    Cambridge, International Symposium on 'Scale Effects in Animal Locomotion'

1976    International Society of Biomechanics, VIth Congress: Opening Lecture (Prof. K. Wartenweiler Memorial         Lecture)

1978    Crans-sur-Sierre, IVth International Conference on Comparative Physiology

1983    Sydney, International Union of Physiological Sciences, XXIXth Congress

1984    Crans-sur-Sierre, VIIth International Conference on Comparative Physiology

1987    Museu de la Ciència - Barcelona, International Course on Biomechanics

1989    Association des Physiologistes de Langue Française, 57ème Réunion

1990    European Space Agency, 4th European Symposium on Life Sciences Research in Space: Prof. R. Margaria         Memorial Lecture

1990    Bruxelles, XIXth European Conference on Muscle Contraction and Cell Motility

1992    Colorado Springs, Colorado (USA), American Physiological Society Conference: Integrative Biology of exercise

1993    Cividale del Friuli (Italy), 9th Lecture Course on Biophysics and Molecular Biology, “Muscle Contraction from         Cross-Bridges to Human Locomotion”: Opening Lecture

1994    Amsterdam, Second World Congress of Biomechanics: Plenary Lecture

1997    St.Petersburg, XXXIII International Congress of Physiological Sciences, Symposium on Excitation Contraction         Coupling and Molecular Mechanisms of Contraction

1997    Hakone, Japan, Symposium on the Mechanism of Work Production and Work Absorption in Muscle

1999    Maastricht, The Netherlands, VII European Symposium on Life Sciences Research in Space: Key Lecture

2000    Exeter, England, The Society for Experimental Biology Annual Meeting

2003    Chieti, Italy, 54° National Congress of the Società Italiana di Fisiologia

2006    University College London, UK, Main Meeting of The Physiological Society

Visiting Researchers at his Laboratory:

1969-1970    Dr. L. Komarek - Faculty of Medicine, University of Prague (Czechoslovakia))

1972-1973 & 1976     Dr. H. Thys - Dept. of Physical Education, University of Liège (Belgium)

1974-1976    Prof. C.R. Taylor - Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University (USA)

1974-1976 & 1979-1990     Prof. N. C. Heglund - Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University (USA) and

                Dept. of Rehabilitation, University of Louvain (Belgium)

1975-1976    Prof. M. Kaneko - Physical Education College, Osaka (Japan)

1980-1981    Dr. T. Fuchimoto - Physical Education College, Osaka (Japan)

1986-1989    Dr. P. Willems - Dept. of Rehabilitation, University of Louvain (Belgium)

1989-1990    Prof. J. Harry - Dept. of Engineering, Brown University (USA)

1992-1999    Prof. P. Willems - Dept. of Rehabilitation, University of Louvain (Belgium)

LIST OF PUBLICATIONS

1 -    MARGARIA, R. & CAVAGNA, G.A. Il meccanismo della fonazione. Bollettino Società Italiana Biologia Sperimentale XXXV (fasc. 24 bis): 2075-2077, 1959.

2 -    MARGARIA, R. & CAVAGNA, G. A. Il rendimento meccanico della fonazione. Bollettino Società Italiana Biologia Sperimentale XXXV (fasc. 24 bis): 2077-2079, 1959.

3 -    MARGARIA, R., MILIC-EMILI, J., PETIT, J. M. & CAVAGNA, G.A. Mechanical work of breathing during muscular exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology 15(3): 354-358, 1960.

4 -    CAVAGNA, G.A., SAIBENE, F.P. & MARGARIA, R. Registrazione contemporanea nelle tre direzioni dello spazio delle accelerazioni a cui si è sottoposti durante la marcia. Bollettino Società Italiana Biologia Sperimentale XXXVI (fasc. 24 bis): 1802-1804, 1960.

5 -    CAVAGNA, G.A., SAIBENE, F.P. & MARGARIA, R. Lavoro compiuto contro la gravità durante la marcia a varie velocità. Bollettino Società Italiana Biologia Sperimentale XXXVI (fasc. 24 bis): 1804-1806, 1960.

6 - CAVAGNA, G.A., SAIBENE, F.P. & MARGARIA, R. A three-directional accelerometer for analyzing body movements. Journal of Applied Physiology 16(1): 191, 1961.

7 - CAVAGNA, G.A., BRANDI, G., SAIBENE, F.P. & TORELLI, G. Isteresi elastica del polmone. Rendiconti Accademia Nazionale Lincei, Serie VIII, XXX(3): 395-398, 1961.

8 -    CAVAGNA, G.A. & SAIBENE, F.P. Spostamenti ed accelerazioni del tronco durante la marcia. Rendiconti Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei serie VIII, XXXI(5): 310-313, 1961.

9 - CAVAGNA, G.A., BRANDI, G., SAIBENE, F.P. & TORELLI, G. Pulmonary hysteresis, Journal of Applied Physiology  17(1): 51-53, 1962.

10 - CAVAGNA, G.A., SAIBENE, F.P. & MARGARIA, R. Lavoro esterno compiuto nella marcia. Bollettino Società Italiana Biologia Sperimentale XXXVIII (fasc. 24 bis): 1579-1581, 1962.

11 - CAVAGNA, G.A. & SAIBENE, F.P. Meccanica della corsa. Bollettino Società Italiana Biologia Sperimentale XXXVIII (fasc. 24 bis): 1581-1582, 1962.

12 - CAVAGNA, G.A., SAIBENE, F.P. & MARGARIA R. External work in walking. Journal of Applied Physiology  18(1): 1-9, 1963.

13 - MARGARIA, R., CAVAGNA, G.A. & SAIBENE, F.P. External work in walking. Medicina dello Sport  3(6): 709-719, 1963. 

14 - CAVAGNA, G.A., SAIBENE, F.P., SANTI, G.F. & MARGARIA, R. Analysis of the mechanics of locomotion. Experimental Medicine and Surgery 21: 117-126, 1963.

15 - MARGARIA, R., CAVAGNA, G.A. & SAIBENE, F.P. Possibilità di sfruttamento dell'elasticità del muscolo contratto durante l'esercizio muscolare. Bollettino Società Italiana Biologia Sperimentale XXXIX (fasc. 24 bis): 1815-1816, 1963.

16 - CAVAGNA, G.A., SAIBENE, F.P. & MARGARIA R. Mechanical work in running. Journal of Applied Physiology 19(2): 249-256, 1964.

17 - CAVAGNA, G.A., SAIBENE, F.P., SANTI, G. & MARGARIA, R. Analisi della meccanica della locomozione. Minerva Medica 55: 736-739, 1964.

18 - CAVAGNA, G.A., MARGARIA, R., & SAIBENE, F.P. Energia potenziale immagazzinata durante l'allungamento del muscolo contratto. Rendiconti Accademia Nazionale Lincei serie VIII, XXXVI(3): 303-306, 1964.

19 - CAVAGNA, G.A. & MARGARIA, R. Caratteristiche elastiche del muscolo contratto. Rendiconti Accademia Nazionale Lincei serie VIII, XXXVI(3): 307-310, 1964.

20 - MARGARIA, R. & CAVAGNA, G.A. Human locomotion in subgravity. Aerospace Medicine 35: 1140-1146, 1964.

21 - CAVAGNA, G.A. & MARGARIA, R. Meccanica della contrazione del muscolo previamente sottoposto a stiramento. Bollettino Società Italiana Biologia Sperimentale XL (fasc. 24 bis): 2051-2054, 1964.

22 - CAVAGNA, G.A. & MARGARIA, R. La meccanica della marcia e l'attività muscolare richiesta nelle singole fasi del passo. Rendiconto Acccademia Nazionale Lincei serie VIII, XXXVIII(3): 331-338, 1965.

23 - CAVAGNA, G.A. Oscillazioni smorzate del corpo dovute alla elasticità ed alla viscosità muscolare. Rendiconti Accademia Nazionale Lincei serie VIII, XXXVIII(3): 422-427, 1965.

24 - MARGARIA, R., G.A. CAVAGNA & ARCELLI, E. Variazioni di lunghezza, nelle varie fasi del passo, dei muscoli che sostengono la spinta nel corpo nella corsa. Rendiconti Accademia Nazionale Lincei serie VIII, XXXVIII(3): 463-465, 1965. 

26 - CAVAGNA, G.A., SAIBENE, F.P. & MARGARIA, R. (With the Technical Assistance of G. Orlando) Effect of negative work on the amount of positive work performed by an isolated muscle. Journal of Applied Physiology 20(1): 157-158, 1965.

27 - CAVAGNA, G.A. & MARGARIA, R. An analysis of the mechanics of phonation. Journal of Applied Physiology 20(2): 301-307, 1965. 

28 - CAVAGNA, G.A., MARGARIA, R. & ARCELLI, E. A high-speed motion picture analysis of the work performed in sprint running. Research Film 5(4): 309-319, 1966.

29 - CAVAGNA, G.A. & MARGARIA, R. Mechanics of walking. Journal of Applied Physiology 21(1): 271-278, 1966.

30 - CAVAGNA, G.A., STEMMLER, E.J. & DUBOIS, A.B. Alveolar resistance to atelectasis. Journal of Applied Physiology 22(3): 441-452, 1967.

31 - CAVAGNA, G.A., VELASQUEZ, B.J., WETTON, R. & DUBOIS, A.B. Cellular adsorption of pulmonary surface-active material. Journal of Applied Physiology 22(5): 982-989, 1967.

32 - CAVAGNA, G.A., DUSMAN, B. & MARGARIA, R. Positive work done by a previously stretched muscle. Journal of Applied Physiology 24(1): 21-32, 1968.

33 - CAVAGNA, G.A. & MARGARIA, R. Airflow rates and efficiency changes during phonation.  Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 155: 152-164, 1968.

34 - CAVAGNA, G.A. Human locomotion at reduced gravity. Journal of the British Interplanetary Society 21: 166-170, 1968.

35 - CAVAGNA, G.A. Travail mécanique dans la marche et la course. Journal de Physiologie 61(suppl.1): 3-42, 1969.

36 - CAVAGNA, G.A., KOMAREK, L., CITTERIO, G. & MARGARIA, R. Power output of the previously stretched muscle. In Medicine and Sport, vol. 6: Biomechanics II, pp. 159-167. Basel: Karger, 1971.

37 - CAVAGNA, G.A. The series elastic component of frog gastrocnemius. Journal of Physiology 206: 257-262, 1970.

38 - CAVAGNA, G.A. (With the Technical Assistance of A. Zamboni) Elastic bounce of the body. Journal of Applied Physiology 29(3): 279-282, 1970.

39 - CAVAGNA, G.A., KOMAREK, L. & MAZZOLENI, S. The mechanics of sprint running. Journal of Physiology 217: 709-721, 1971.

40 - CAVAGNA, G.A. & CITTERIO, G. Force-velocity relationship of frog gastrocnemius shortening in isotonic conditions immediately after stretching and from an isometric contraction. Archivio di Fisiologia 68(4): 316-318, 1971.

41 - CAVAGNA, G.A., ZAMBONI, A., FARAGGIANA, T. & MARGARIA, R. Jumping on the moon: power output at different gravity values. Aerospace Medicine 43(4), 408-414, 1972.

42 - CAVAGNA, G.A. Role de l'élasticité musculaire dans le mouvement. Travail Humain 35(2): 369-371, 1972.

43 - CAVAGNA, G.A. Meccanica della marcia e della corsa. Sapere 745: 25-30, 1972.

44 - DU BOIS, A.B., CAVAGNA, G.A. & FOX, R.S. Pressure distribution on the body surface of swimming fish. Journal of Experimental Biology 60: 581-591, 1974.

45 - CAVAGNA, G.A. & CITTERIO, G. Effect of stretching on the elastic characteristics and the contractile component of frog striated muscle.  Journal of Physiology 239: 1-14, 1974.

46 - THIS, H., CAVAGNA, G.A. & MARGARIA, R. The role played by elasticity in an exercise involving movements of small amplitude. Pflügers Archives 354: 281-286, 1975.

47 - CAVAGNA, G.A. & CURADINI L. Internal work in locomotion: effect of walking and running speed on kinetic energy of upper and lower limbs. IRCS Medical Science: Biomedical Technology; Physiology; Social and Occupational Medicine 3: 294, 1975.

48 - CAVAGNA, G.A., CITTERIO, G. & JACINI, P. The additional mechanical energy delivered by the contractile component of the previously stretched muscle. Journal of Physiology 251: 65-66P, 1975.

49 - CAVAGNA, G.A. Force platforms as ergometers.  Journal of Applied Physiology 39(1): 174-179, 1975.

50 - DU BOIS, A.B., CAVAGNA, G.A. & FOX, R.S. Locomotion of bluefish. Journal of Experimental Zoology 195(2): 223-235, 1976.

51 - CAVAGNA, G.A., THYS, H. & ZAMBONI, A. The sources of external work in level walking and running. Journal of Physiology 262: 639-657, 1976.

52 - CAVAGNA, G.A. & KANEKO, M. Mechanical work and efficiency in level walking and running. Journal of Physiology 268: 467-481, 1977.

53 - CAVAGNA, G.A., HEGLUND, N.C. & TAYLOR C.R. Mechanical work in terrestrial locomotion: two basic mechanisms for minimizing energy expenditure. American Journal of Physiology 233(5): R243-R261, 1977.

54 - CAVAGNA, G.A. & FRANZETTI, P. Meccanica della marcia atletica. In Atletica Leggera Quaderni Tecnici, pp. 3-9. Vigevano: Edizioni Atletica Leggera, 1980.

55 - CAVAGNA, G.A. & FRANZETTI, P. Mechanics of competition walking. Journal of Physiology 315: 243-251, 1981.

56 - CAVAGNA, G.A., CITTERIO, G. & JACINI, P. Effect of speed and extent of stretching on the elastic properties of active frog muscle. Journal of Experimental Biology 91: 131-143, 1981.

57 - HEGLUND, N.C.,  CAVAGNA, G.A. & TAYLOR, C.R. Energetics and mechanics of terrestrial locomotion. III Energy changes of the center of mass as a function of speed and body size in birds and mammals.  Journal of Experimental Biology 97: 41-56, 1982.

58 - HEGLUND, N.C.,  FEDAK, M.A., TAYLOR, C.R. & Cavagna, G.A. Energetics and mechanics of terrestrial locomotion. IV Total mechanical energy changes of the body as a function of speed and body size. Journal of Experimental Biology 97: 57-66, 1982.

59 - CAVAGNA, G.A. & FRANZETTI, P. Step frequency in walking. IRCS Medical Science: Anatomy and Human Biology, Biomedical Technology, Cardiovascular System 10: 281-282, 1982.

60 - HEGLUND, N.C. & CAVAGNA, G.A. Oxygen consumption, mechanical work and efficiency in isolated muscle. Bollettino Società Italiana Biologia Sperimentale LVIII: 113-114, 1982.

61 - CAVAGNA, G.A., FRANZETTI, P. & FUCHIMOTO, T. The mechanics of walking in children. Journal of Physiology 343: 323-339, 1983.

62 - CAVAGNA, G.A., TESIO, L. FUCHIMOTO, T. & HEGLUND, N.C. Ergometric evaluation of pathological gait. Journal of Applied Physiology: Respirat. Envir. Exercise Physiology 55(2): 606-613, 1983

63 - CAVAGNA, G.A., MAZZANTI, M. & CITTERIO, G. Storage and  release of mechanical energy by active muscle: a passive visco-elastic system or an activation of the contractile machinery? Bollettino Società Italiana Biologia Sperimentale LX: 98-99, 1984.

64 - CAVAGNA, G.A., MAZZANTI, M., HEGLUND, N.C. & CITTERIO, G. Storage and  release of mechanical energy by active muscle: a non-elastic mechanism? Journal of Experimental Biology 115: 79-87, 1985.

65 - HEGLUND, N.C. & CAVAGNA, G.A. Efficiency of vertebrate locomotory muscles.  Journal of Experimental Biology 115: 283-292, 1985.

66 - MALOIY, G.M.O., HEGLUND, N.C., PRAGER, L.M., CAVAGNA, G.A. & TAYLOR C.R. energetic cost of carrying loads: have African women discovered an economic way? Nature 319: 668-669, 1986.

67 - CAVAGNA, G.A. & FRANZETTI, P. The determinants of the step frequency in walking in humans. Journal of Physiology 373: 235-242, 1986.

68 - CAVAGNA, G.A. A classification of muscular exercises. Bollettino Società Italiana Biologia Sperimentale LXII: 87-88, 1986.

69 - CAVAGNA, G.A., MAZZANTI, M., HEGLUND, N.C. & CITTERIO, G. Mechanical transients initiated by ramp stretch and release to Po in frog muscle fibers. American Journal of Physiology 251 (Cell Physiol. 20): C571-C579, 1986.

70 - CAVAGNA, G.A., FRANZETTI, P., WILLEMS, P.A. & HEGLUND, N.C. The bounce of the body in running, trotting and hopping. Medical Science Research 15: 449-450, 1987.

71 - HEGLUND, N.C. & CAVAGNA, G.A. Mechanical work, oxygen consumption, and efficiency in isolated frog and rat muscle. American Journal of Physiology 253 (Cell Physiol. 22): C22-C29, 1987.

72 - CAVAGNA, G.A. & FRANZETTI, P. il centro di gravita' nella corsa.  Scuola dello Sport 9: 45-50, 1987.

73 - CAVAGNA, G.A., FRANZETTI, P., HEGLUND, N.C. & WILLEMS, P.A. The determinants of the step frequency in running, trotting and hopping in man and other vertebrates. Journal of Physiology 399: 81-92, 1988

74 - CAVAGNA, G.A., WILLEMS, P.A., FRANZETTI, P. & DETREMBLEUR, C. The two power limits conditioning step frequency in human running. Journal of Physiology 437: 95-108, 1991.

75 - CAVAGNA, G.A. Effect of temperature and velocity of stretching on stress relaxation of contracting frog muscle fibres. Journal of Physiology 462: 161-173, 1993.

76 - CAVAGNA, G.A., HEGLUND, N.C., HARRY, J.D. & MANTOVANI, M. Storage and release of mechanical energy by contracting frog muscle fibres. Journal of Physiology 481.3: 689-708, 1994.

77 - WILLEMS, P.A., G.A. CAVAGNA & HEGLUND, N.C. External, internal and total work in human locomotion. Journal of Experimental Biology 198, 379-393, 1995.

78 - HEGLUND, N.C., WILLEMS, P.A., PENTA, M. & CAVAGNA, G.A. Energy-saving gait mechanics with head-supported loads. Nature 375, 52-54, 1995.

79 - CAVAGNA, G.A., MANTOVANI, M., WILLEMS, P.A. & MUSCH, G. The resonant step frequency in human running. Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology 434: 678-684, 1997.

80 - CAVAGNA, G.A., WILLEMS, P.A. & HEGLUND, N.C. Walking on Mars. Nature 393: 636, 1998.

81 - SCHEPENS, B., WILLEMS, P.A. & CAVAGNA, G.A. The mechanics of running in children. Journal of Physiology 509.3: 927-940, 1998.

82 - CAVAGNA, G.A., HEGLUND, N.C. & MANTOVANI, M. Muscle work enhancement by stretch: Passive visco-elasticity or cross-bridges? Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 453: 393-409, 1998.

83 - MANTOVANI, M., CAVAGNA, G.A., & HEGLUND, N.C. Effect of stretching on undamped elasticity in muscle fibres from Rana temporaria. Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility 20: 33-43, 1999.

84 - CAVAGNA, G.A., WILLEMS, P.A. & HEGLUND, N.C. The role of gravity in human walking: pendular energy exchange, external work and optimal speed. Journal of Physiology 528.3: 657-668, 2000.

85 - SCHEPENS, B., WILLEMS, P.A., CAVAGNA, G.A. & HEGLUND, N.C. Mechanical power and efficiency in running children. Pflugers Archiv – European Journal of Physiology 442.1: 107-116, 2001.

86 - MANTOVANI, M., HEGLUND, N.C. & CAVAGNA, G.A. Energy transfer during stress relaxation of contracting frog muscle fibres. Journal of Physiology 537.3: 923-939, 2001.

87 - CAVAGNA, G.A., WILLEMS, P.A., LEGRAMANDI, M.A. & HEGLUND, N.C. Pendular energy transduction within the step in human walking. Journal of Experimental Biology 205: 3413-3422, 2002.

88 - CAVAGNA, G.A., WILLEMS, P.A. & HEGLUND, N.C Effect of an increase in gravity on the power output and the rebound of the body in human running. Journal of Experimental Biology 208: 2333-2346, 2005.

89 - CAVAGNA, G.A. The landing-take-off asymmetry in human running. Journal of Experimental Biology 209: 4051-4060, 2006.

90 - CAVAGNA, G.A., LEGRAMANDI, M.A. & PEYRE-TARTARUGA, L.A. Old men running: mechanical work and elastic bounce. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 275: 411-418, 2008.

91 - CAVAGNA, G.A., LEGRAMANDI, M.A. & PEYRE-TARTARUGA, L.A. The landing-take-off asymmetry of human running is enhanced in old age. Journal of Experimental Biology 211: 1571-1578, 2008.

92 - CAVAGNA, G.A. & LEGRAMANDI, M.A. The bounce of the body in hopping, running and trotting: different machines with the same motor. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 276: 4279-4285, 2009.

93 - CAVAGNA, G.A. The two asymmetries of the bouncing step. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 107: 739-742, 2009.

94 - GENIN, J.J., WILLEMS, P.A., CAVAGNA, G.A., LAIR, R. & HEGLUND, N.C. Biomechanics of locomotion in Asian elephants. Journal of Experimental Biology 213: 694–706, 2010.

95 - BUCKLEY J.G., JUNIPER, M.P., CAVAGNA, G.A., ZELIK, K.E., ADAMCZYK, P.G. & MORIN, J.B. Comments on Point:Counterpoint: Artificial limbs do/do not make artificially fast running speeds possible. Journal of Applied Physiology 108: 1016 – 1018, 2010.

96 - CAVAGNA, G.A. Symmetry and asymmetry in bouncing gaits. Symmetry 2010; 2: 1270-1321.


97 - CAVAGNA, G.A., LEGRAMANDI M.A. & LA TORRE A. Running backwards: soft landing-hard takeoff, a less efficient rebound. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 278: 339-346, 2011. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2010.1212


98 - CAVAGNA, G.A., LEGRAMANDI M.A. & LA TORRE A. An analysis of the rebound of the body in backward human running. Journal of Experimental Biology 215 (Pt 1): 75-84, 2012. DOI: 10.1242/jeb.057562


99 - LEGRAMANDI, M.A., SCHEPENS, B. & CAVAGNA, G.A. Running humans attain optimal elastic bounce in their teens. Scientific Reports 2013; 3, 1310; DOI: 10.1038/srep01310


100 - CAVAGNA G.A. & LEGRAMANDI M.A. Running, hopping and trotting: tuning step frequency to the resonant frequency of the bouncing system favors larger more compliant animals. J Exp Biol 2015; 218: 3276-3283. DOI: 10.1242/jeb.127142

CHAPTERS AND MONOGRAPHS

1 -    CAVAGNA, G.A. Locomozione. In Enciclopedia della Scienza e della Tecnica, vol. 6, pp. 367-370. Verona: Mondadori Editore, 1963.

2 -    MARGARIA, R., CAVAGNA, G.A. & SAIKI, H. Human locomotion at reduced gravity. In Proceedings of the 2nd Lunar Intern. Laboratory Symposium: Life sciences research and lunar medicine, pp. 55-62. Pergamon Press – Oxford & New York, 1967.

3 -    CAVAGNA, G.A. Biofisica del muscolo, del circolo e della respirazione. Cortina Editore, Milano, 1971.

4 -    CAVAGNA, G.A. Human locomotion. In Comparative Physiology, ed. Bolis, L., Schmidt-Nielsen, K. and Maddrell, S.H.P., pp. 43-62. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company, 1973.

5 -    CAVAGNA, G.A. & CAMPORESI, E. Glottic aerodynamics and phonation. In Ventilatory and Phonatory Control System, ed. Wyke, B., pp. 76-88. London: Oxford University Press, 1974.

6 -    DU BOIS, A.B., CAVAGNA, G.A. & FOX, R.S. The forces resisting locomotion in bluefish. In Swimming and Flying in Nature, vol. 2, ed. Wu, T.Y.T., Brokaw C.J. and  Brennen, C., pp. 541-551. Plenum Press, 1975.

7 -    CAVAGNA, G.A., HEGLUND, N.C. & TAYLOR C.R. Walking, running and galloping: mechanical similarities between different animals. In Scale effects in animal locomotion, ed. Pedley T.J., pp. 111-125. London: Academic Press, 1976.

8 -    CAVAGNA, G. Storage and utilization of elastic energy in skeletal muscle. In Exercise and sport sciences review, vol. 5, ed. Hutton, S., pp. 89-129. Santa Barbara: Journal Publishing Affiliates, 1977.

9 -    CAVAGNA, G. A. Aspects of efficiency and inefficiency of terrestrial locomotion. In Biomechanics, VI-A, vol. 2A, ed. Asmussen, E. and Jorgensen, K., pp. 3-22. Baltimore: University Park Press, 1978.

10 - CAVAGNA, G.A., CITTERIO, G. & JACINI, P. Elastic storage: role of tendons and muscles. In Comparative physiology: primitive mammals, ed. Schmidt-Nielsen, K., Bolis, L. and Taylor, C.R., pp. 231-242. Cambridge: University Press, 1980.

11 - CAVAGNA, G.A. Aspetti di biomeccanica. Raffaello Cortina Editore, Milano, 1987.

12 - CAVAGNA, G.A. Muscolo e locomozione. Raffaello Cortina Editore, Milano, 1988.

13 - CAVAGNA, G. A., HEGLUND, N.C., HARRY, J.D. & PASSERINI, L. Storage and release of mechanical energy during contraction. In Muscle and Motility vol. 2, ed. Maréchal, G. & Carraro, U., pp. 283-289. Andover (England): Intercept Ltd, 1990.


14 - CAVAGNA, G. A. Physiological Aspects of Legged Terrestrial Locomotion. The Motor and the Machine. Springer International Publishing, 2017.


15 - CAVAGNA, G. A. Fundamentals of Human Physiology. Springer International Publishing, 2017.

COMMUNICATIONS

1 -    CAVAGNA, G.A., BRANDI, G., SAIBENE, F.P. & TORELLI, G. Pulmonary hysteresis. Proceedings of the International Biophysics Congress, Stockholm: P69, 1961.

2 -    CAVAGNA, G.A. & SAIBENE, F.P. Mechanics of locomotion. Proceedings of the International Biophysics Congress, Stockholm: P70, 1961.

3 -    CAVAGNA, G.A., SAIBENE, F.P. & MARGARIA, R. The mechanical work in walking. Proceedings International Union of Physiological Sciences V, XXII Congr. I.U.P.S. Leyden: P732, 1962.

4 -    CAVAGNA, G.A., SAIBENE, F.P. & MARGARIA, R. Le travail mécanique pendant la marche et la course. Proceedings of the International Congrès Européen Sportif on Poumon, Respiration et Sport, Prague: 503-505, 1963.

5 -    MARGARIA, R. & CAVAGNA, G.A. Human locomotion in subgravity. Proceedings XVth International Astronautical Congress IV, Warszawa: 147-162, 1964.

6 -    MARGARIA, R., & CAVAGNA, G.A. Mechanics of walking. Proceedings International Union of Physiological Sciences VI, XXIII Congr. I.U.P.S. Tokyo: P715, 1965.

7 -    CAVAGNA, G.A. & MARGARIA, R. Role of muscle elasticity in exercise. Proceedings International Union of Physiological Sciences VI, XXIII Congr. I.U.P.S. Tokyo: P716, 1965.

8 -    MARGARIA, R. & CAVAGNA, G.A. La mécanique de la marche. Journal de Physiologie 57(5): 655-656, 1965.

9 -    CAVAGNA, G.A., STEMMLER, E.J. & DUBOIS, A.B. Alveolar resistance to atelectasis. Federation Proceeding 25(2): 505, 1966.

10 - MARGARIA, R., CAVAGNA, G.A. & ARCELLI, E. External mechanical power in sprint running. Proceedings of the XVI Weltcongress für Sport-Medizin. Hannover: 702-706, 1966.

11 - CAVAGNA, G.A., STEMMLER, E.J. & DUBOIS, A.B. Caratteristiche meccaniche degli alveoli a bassi valori di volume polmonare. Atti del XVIII Congresso della Società Italiana di Fisiologia, Siena: P83, 1966.    

12 - CAVAGNA, G.A., DUSMAN, B. & MARGARIA, R. Effetto del lavoro negativo sulla quantità massima di lavoro positivo che può compiere un muscolo contratto.  Atti del XIX Congresso della Società Italiana di Fisiologia, St. Vincent: P155, 1967.

13 - CAVAGNA, G.A. Force développée par le muscle strié à differentes longueurs rejointes: a) par allongement; b) raccouircissement du muscle contracté. Journal de Physiologie 59(4bis): 369-370, 1967.

14 - CAVAGNA, G.A., DUSMAN, B. & MARGARIA, R. Utilisation de l'energie potentielle emmagasinée pendant l'allongement du muscle contracté. Journal de Physiologie 59(4bis): 370-371, 1967.

15 - MARGARIA, R. & CAVAGNA, G.A. Human locomotion on the moon surface. Rivista di medicina aeronautica e spaziale 30(4): 629-644, 1967.

16 - CAVAGNA, G.A., DUSMAN, B. & MARGARIA, R.  Positive work done by a previously stretched muscle. Proceedings International Union of Physiological Sciences VII, XXIV Congr. I.U.P.S. Washington: P, 1968.

17 - CAVAGNA, G.A., DUSMAN, B. & MARGARIA, R. Rendement du travail moteur accompli immédiatement après l'allongement du muscle contracté. Journal de Physiologie 60(suppl.2): 414, 1968.

18 - CAVAGNA, G.A. & DUSMAN, B. Caratteristiche elastiche del muscolo gastrocnemio. Atti del XX Congresso della Società Italiana di Fisiologia, Perugia: P56, 1968.

19 - CAVAGNA, G.A. Diagramma forza-lunghezza degli elementi elastici in serie a valori di forza superiori al massimo isometrico Po. Atti del XX Congresso della Società Italiana di Fisiologia, Perugia: P57, 1968.

20 - CAVAGNA, G.A., DUSMAN, B. & MARGARIA, R. Lavoro, calore prodotto e rendimento di un muscolo che si accorcia immediatamente dopo essere stato stirato in stato di contrazione. Atti del XX Congresso della Società Italiana di Fisiologia, Perugia: P100, 1968.

21 - CAVAGNA, G.A. Il rimbalzo elastico del corpo. Atti del XXI Congresso della Società Italiana di Fisiologia, Alghero: P60, 1969.

22 - CAVAGNA, G.A., KOMAREK, L., CITTERIO, G. & MARGARIA, R. Massima potenza meccanica nell'uomo. Atti del XXI Congresso della Società Italiana di Fisiologia, Alghero: P61, 1969.

23 - CAVAGNA, G.A. & CITTERIO, G. Mechanical power developed by the contractile component of a muscle shortening immediately after stretching at a given speed or at a given load. Proceedings International Union of Physiological Sciences IX, XXV Congr. I.U.P.S. Munich: P301, 1971.

24 - CAVAGNA, G.A., KOMAREK, L. & MAZZOLENI, S. The power-velocity relation in sprint running. Proceedings International Union of Physiological Sciences IX, XXV Congr. I.U.P.S. Munich: P302, 1971.

25 - CAVAGNA, G.A. Elasticity in sprint running. Proceedings XXth World Congress in Sport Medicine, Melbourne, S15-S17, 1974.

26 - CAVAGNA, G.A. & CITTERIO, G. Effect of stretching on the mechanics of frog striated muscle. Proceedings International Union of Physiological Sciences XI, XXVI Congr. I.U.P.S. New Delhi: P745, 1974.

27 - DU BOIS, A.B., CAVAGNA, G.A. & FOX, R.S. Forces and energy required to accelerate the body in water and on land. Proceedings International Union of Physiological Sciences XI, XXVI Congr. I.U.P.S. New Delhi: P774, 1974.

28 - CAVAGNA, G.A., HEGLUND, N.C. & TAYLOR C.R. Meccanismi di locomozione terrestre. Atti del XXVIII Congresso della Società Italiana di Fisiologia, S. Margherita di Pula: P209, 1976.

29 - CAVAGNA, G.A., HEGLUND, N.C. & TAYLOR C.R. Mechanisms of terrestrial locomotion. Proceedings International Union of Physiological Sciences XIII, XXVII Congr. I.U.P.S. Paris: P124, 1977.

30 - HEGLUND, N.C., CAVAGNA, G.A., FEDAK, M. & TAYLOR C.R. Muscle efficiency during locomotion: how does it vary with body size and speed? Federation Proceeding 38(1) 63rd Meeting F.A.S.E.B. Dallas: P1443, 1979.

31 - HEGLUND, N.C., FEDAK, M., CAVAGNA, G.A. & TAYLOR C.R. Metabolic energy consumed and mechanical work done during locomotion as a function of size and speed. Proceedings International Union of Physiological Sciences XIV, XXVIII Congr. I.U.P.S. Budapest: P468, 1980.

32 - CAVAGNA, G.A., CITTERIO, G. & JACINI, P. The twofold elastic behaviour of striated muscle. Proceedings International Union of Physiological Sciences XIV, XXVIII Congr. I.U.P.S. Budapest: P1052, 1980.

33 - CAVAGNA, G.A., TESIO, L. FUCHIMOTO, T. & HEGLUND, N.C. Valutazione ergometrica delle anomalie della locomozione. Atti del XXXIII Congresso della Società Italiana di Fisiologia, Chieti: P43, 1981.

34 - CAVAGNA, G.A. & FRANZETTI, P. I fattori che determinano la frequenza dei passi nella marcia. Atti del XXXIII Congresso della Società Italiana di Fisiologia, Chieti: P67, 1981.

35 - HEGLUND, N.C. & CAVAGNA, G.A. Consumo di ossigeno, lavoro meccanico e rendimento del muscolo isolato.  Atti del XXXIII Congresso della Società Italiana di Fisiologia, Chieti: P68, 1981.

36 - HEGLUND, N.C. & CAVAGNA, G.A. Oxygen consumption, work and efficiency as a function of contraction velocity in isolated frog sartorius muscle. 5th International Symposium on the Biochemistry of Exercise, Boston, 1982.

37 - CAVAGNA, G.A. Relating the metabolism of exercising animals to the properties of isolated muscle. Proceedings International Union of Physiological Sciences XV, XXIX Congr. I.U.P.S. Sydney: P162.03, 1983.

38 - CAVAGNA, G.A., FRANZETTI, P. & FUCHIMOTO, T. The mechanics of walking in children. Proceedings International Union of Physiological Sciences XV, XXIX Congr. I.U.P.S. Sydney: P386.03, 1983.

39 - TAYLOR, C.R., MALOIY, G.M.O., HEGLUND, N.C. & CAVAGNA, G.A. Energetic cost for carrying loads: have African women discovered an economic mechanism? Proceedings International Union of Physiological Sciences XV, XXIX Congr. I.U.P.S. Sydney: P139.16, 1983.

40 - HEGLUND, N.C. & CAVAGNA, G.A. Muscular efficiency and the mechanics and energetics of terrestrial locomotion. Proceedings International Union of Physiological Sciences XV, XXIX Congr. I.U.P.S. Sydney: P338.13, 1983.

41 - CAVAGNA, G.A., A classification of muscular exercices. Atti della XII Riunione primaverile della Societa’ Italiana di Fisiologia, Firenze, 16-17 maggio 1985 - Bollettino Società Italiana Biologia Sperimentale, Supplemento al n.3 – vol. LXII: 87-88, 1986.

42 - CAVAGNA, G.A., MAZZANTI, M. & HEGLUND, N.C. Storage and release of energy by active muscle. Proceedings International Union of Physiological Sciences XVI, XXX Congr. I.U.P.S. Vancouver: P112.01, 1986.

43 - CAVAGNA, G.A., WILLEMS, P.A., FRANZETTI, P. & DETREMBLEUR, C. Step frequency and mechanical power in human running. Proceedings International Union of Physiological Sciences XVII, XXXI Congr. I.U.P.S. Helsinki: P5591, 1989.

44 - CAVAGNA G.A. Walking and running on earth. (Prof. R. Margaria Memorial Lecture). Proceedings IV European Symposium on Life Science Research in Space, E.S.A. Trieste, 1990.

45 - CAVAGNA, G.A. Storage and release of mechanical energy during contraction. Proceedings XIXth European Conference on Muscle Contraction and Cell Motility,  Bruxelles: L2, 1990.

46 - CAVAGNA, G.A., Interazione tra meccanica del muscolo e della locomozione. IX Corso Nazionale di Aggiornamento, Societa’ Italiana di Medicina Fisica e Riabilitazione, Milano, 1992

47 - CAVAGNA, G.A., Effect of stretching a contracting muscle on its subsequent shortening. American Physiological Society Conference,Colorado Springs, Colorado, 1992

48 - CAVAGNA, G.A., HEGLUND, N.C., HARRY, J.D. & MANTOVANI, M. Crossbridges during lengthening of active muscle: how many and how far? Riunione della Societa' Italiana di Fisiologia, Firenze 1990, Pflügers Archiv, 421, 26, 1992.

49 - CAVAGNA, G.A. La locomozione: visione generale dei problemi meccanici. Ricerca in Reabilitazione 1, 8-10, 1993.

50 - CAVAGNA, G.A., The determinants of the step frequency in human locomotion. Second World Congress of Biomechanics,Plenary Lecture. Amsterdam, 1994.

51 - CAVAGNA G.A.  & HEGLUND, N.C. Stretch, stress relaxation and energy storage in tetanized frog muscle fibres. Proceedings XXIVth European Muscle Conference. Firenze, 1995.

52 - WILLEMS, P.A. , CAVAGNA, G.A., FRANZETTI, P. & DETREMBLEUR, C. Step frequency and mechanical power in human running. XXXIII International Congress of Physiological Sciences. St. Petersburg, 1997.

53 - WILLEMS, P.A. , SCHEPENS, B. & CAVAGNA, G.A. The mechanics of running in children. XXXIII International Congress of Physiological Sciences. St. Petersburg, 1997.

54 - HEGLUND, N.C., WILLEMS, P.A. , PENTA, M. & CAVAGNA, G.A. Energy saving gait mechanics with head-supported loads. XXXIII International Congress of Physiological Sciences. St. Petersburg, 1997.

54 - CAVAGNA, G.A., WILLEMS, P.A. & HEGLUND, N.C. Walking on Mars. XXXIII International Congress of Physiological Sciences. St. Petersburg, 1997.

55 - MANTOVANI, M., CAVAGNA, G.A., HEGLUND, N.C & BONOMI, F. Effect of stretching on undamped elasticity in muscle fibres form rana temporaria. XXXIII International Congress of Physiological Sciences. St. Petersburg, 1997.

56 - CAVAGNA, G.A., WILLEMS, P.A. & HEGLUND, N.C. Walking on Mars. Life Odissey, 7th Symposium on Life Sciences Research in Space. Maastricht, The Netherlands, 29 May to 2 June, 1999.